To make possible an easy Internet navigation on mobility situation plus the ability to take advantage of writing programs and any other commonly used applications a major Korean company in 2007 presented the first "netbook" with seven-inch screen, a small keyboard, just less a kilo of weight, with reduced consumption that ensured greater autonomy than a notebook and then suitable to be easily carried and used even if with some limitations to performance level. This miniature computer not being equipped with DVD drive exploited the possibilities become almost normal in those days to download programs from the Internet or use them directly on the net (with some difficulty for the reduced graphics), then later models that were launched in the following year by all manufacturers were fitted with larger screens and more memory and storage capacity. - [In the 1968 was presented the mouse, dialog windows and hypertexts almost an informatic revolution].
In 1996 he launched the first pocket phone with also the main functions of a computer, and then with much more advanced features which was later called smartphone. Were not far apart the times in which nearly had to be ashamed of having a cell phone and probably the attitude was no different for the innovative "Communicator" smartphone a vanguard product of a famous Finnish company, a kind of telephony giant by a couple of years almost disappeared from the market. Initially the smartphone was a bit bulky and heavy, but it was quickly replaced by models becoming lighter, thinner, with fast processors that can compete as performance with computers. To report changing the subject that Italy recalls that have passed thirty years since the first Arpanet link (not public) which was later joined by the Internet Protocol now widespread even on telephony.
In 1975 he was launched into the kit, also taking advantage of the launch of a specialized magazine, the Altair 8080 (the abbreviation meant the famous microchip) one of the first computer accessible to the general public a lot higher as technology to other proposals and able to compete for computing power with a compact open-architecture processor of ten years earlier, and then giving the opportunity to the cost of an appliance to exploit the potential of the brain and in practice with the same programs. The technological breakthrough was possible thanks to the microprocessor that rode on one small silicon plate thousands of transistors and condensed into a single unit by the low price all the potential of computer computation, then it was possible to develop advanced system programs in high level language similar to current ones and also to program pretty easily.
While it is recalled that twenty-five years ago took the startup project for the World Wide Web, destined to affect the life style of most of the world's population, at the same time some have noted that the network is easily maneuverable and used in practice by organizations that can act at higher levels for all purposes other than those for which it was developed, so that now can also be hijacked without realizing in servers and service providers other than those requested that present themselves as perfect official copies. The manipulation of navigation is not the prerogative of countries known for this type of invasive initiatives such as China and Iran, and now there are plenty of countries willing to build regional networks secure enough to protect the data, or companies that are planning new operating systems that do not are tools for swindle information and personal habits.
A computer without software is virtually unusable and in order to realize the applications that the computer can process must provide the microprocessor a long list of information in a series of binary digits (1 switched on and 0 switched off, for example 01001010 or 01010001), called machine language almost impossible to be normally used for this in 1954 the programmers have thought of putting in place a quite understandable language called Fortran or Formula translator the first high-level language and then of the same type of symbolic languages still used. The ability to easily write programs to solve by the computer has allowed a remarkable development of the information technology and applications of every type, but also caused the proliferation of a babel of languages generally designed for specific areas each with its own dedicated compiler for translated into binary.
One of the most common protocols for communication networks to local processing, and therefore limited as potential extension, such as Ethernet was first implemented in 1973 on the computer using coaxial cables, taking advantage from experiments in Hawaii in the seventies years for a radio network that would allow communications between the islands in a project called Alohanet. It is a connection system simple and low cost in which the main nodes transmit to the nodes of recipients without there being a control device, with the information sent if the communication channel is free, divided into packets that contain addresses both of the registered holder that the message recipient thanks to an algorithm that detects the packet collisions. In the event of a collision of packets sent in the same instant, the communication will be retried after a random interval automatically managed.
The new devices for the calculation as tablets and smartphones are taking away market share in computer sales in part because of the more favorable price, then the computer with new OS designed for touch screens are significantly more expensive than tablets and seems have not yet found favor with the public, and some have advanced some criticism about the ergonomics having to keep arm raised to touch the screen with the fingers, even if are coming models that turn into tablets. Producers who are particularly specialized in the sale of computers begin to feel the decline in sales in what was defined as the end of a glorious era (post PC). When become available in the near future smartphones-computer with the screen that folded like a sheet of paper is to be expected that also the tablet market may be affected.
In 1983 it was possible to place on the market a truly portable computer through the use of a small liquid crystal display which allowed to reduce the space occupied by the cathode ray tube and then with the advance of technology over the years to improve the vision of the data processed by graphics cards with considerable computing power so can also play movies. An LCD screen is made up of several polarized layers within the liquid crystals arranged in grooves that if paths by an electric field block the passage of light forming a sort of grid allowing to display the pixels, then to change the color using one or more transistors, and this type of technology to be developed has prompted the study of many researchers (starting from Arago, Biot, Fresnel, Brewster..) including the botanical Reinitzer that in 1888 identified the characteristics of Cholesteril-benzoate, that O. Lehman called "living crystal".
The microchips were obtained by sectioning a single crystal silicon of a cylindrical shape as a "wafer" into many thin slices and then dividing them into many very small chips and in 1972 were developed early microprocessors to eight bits, permitting a processing of blocks with a length of eight binary digits, and therefore more suitable for use in computers than four bits for a year equipped calculators and other electronic devices can count on more than two thousand transistors on a silicon plate of about three to four millimeters. The computer architecture has remained substantially in the time always the same as that of the first gigantic and expensive valve processors with data taken from the memories and calculated in the central unit, but the power and speed of calculation is increased enormously so as to allow each type use more or less useful and positive, which forces to continuous updates.
That sort of "revolution" in information technology has been achieved through the use of microprocessors containing thousands of transistors whose design is attributed to the Luxembourg engineer and writer Hugo Gernsback (1884-1967) that besides the principle of radar operation described, in various scientific publications in America, the triode crystal in 1942 five years before its discovery (attributed to J. Bardeen, W.B. Shockley, and W.H. Brattain awarded with Nobel in 1956). Compared to vacuum tubes the transistors allow low spaces and consumption, moreover had a very long time in duration with really low productive cost and the microchips developed about forty years ago (for the PC) by a group of engineers working in various fields of design began to draw some kind of microscopic towns on silicon basis on which semiconductors were virtually printed with photo impression mechanisms.
An Italian designer began in 1962 to look for the components necessary to make easy to use for the public a desktop electronic computer and then equipped with a kind of a magnetic card to be inserted, in the same way of a modern device, to memorize the data stored in a metallic coils in a "magnetic writing" line which allowed rapid calculations and the ability to custom programming on the user's needs based. The program machine despite its versatility and the favor of the public not said much about the market and its patent was sold abroad for a large sum from a known industry manufacturer of typewriters, calculators and then computers. This option will not allow the subsequent development of the programs calculators technology and this branch was indeed at one point virtually abandoned and Italy went from being the native country of the desktop computer to an importer of calculators.
An aid to calculations made in ancient times was the abacus, a tablet with grooves in which to place the tiles or stones (from which calculus) like "abaci" which became in time the kind of straightedges, more or less complex including one described in 1606 by Galileo, then Pascal and more fully Leibniz invented mechanical calculators which was also the basis of the functioning of a complex machinery for calculations designed by Babbage after 1822 that was also programmed using punch cards which were used to weave the threads in mechanical looms (Jacquard). The development of calculators was mainly by watchmakers, the only ones at this time were able to manufacture the many cogs of these machines, and have to wait until Zuse (about 1934) to see the appearance of relays and Atanasoff for the first modern real computer including electronic memory and printing.
The news of worsening of the health conditions of a well known pioneer [then deceased] of the personal computers and other technological devices have become commonly used often to report the detail that was put together just for fun in 1976 the first prototype in the garage of his home, but in reality computer design has required decades of complex researches and in different sector; in fact the evolution of the flight simulator Whirlwind became operational 1951 is considered the first example of processing data in real time with memories to binary code in ferrite cores and work environment similar to that subsequently adopted by the PC. In practice, the main feature of the first computers would be just the immediate interactivity with the user that became typical of the personal computer kits like the Altair with a chip 8080 that can compete in the 1975 with the big digital computers of the time.
When are talking of mathematical systems of calculation, astronomical observations and timetables for the measurement of time often forget to mention the achievements of the Assyrian-Babylonian (Akkadian) that long before the Greeks calculated the movements of the planet Mercury and the moon's orbit with a difference of only 0.4 seconds compared to current measurements; moreover the religion of the Sumerians connected to the cult of the constellations maybe rise [or vice-versa] some stories taken in other sacred texts such as the "Flood" that spared the family of Ut-napiscti, and then the story of Sargon I (2684-2630 BC), born from a virgin and given to the current of a river in a container as well as the exploits of Gilgamesh and the various superstitions. A text written in Babylonian cuneiform discovered in the hill of Kujund-shick reports a mathematical series whose product is relevant to our number 195 955 200 000 000, a figure that would hardly have been considered by Leibniz.
Advances in technology in the field of computers seem geared to the use of photons for the calculation and data exchange for the memory using a type of "quantum mechanics" at microscopic level, in addition, seems there by now microprocessors capable of simulating the operation of the synapses of the brain and then establish new connections, depending on the information to be processed. For years researchers have studied how the human brain is able to store experiences around the world and think about activating neurons in specialized areas of the brain trying to play these cognitive mechanisms in the so-called cognitive computers managed to achieve outstanding results, but what could be obvious by the human brain at the level of reasoning is often not for machines that have tremendous performance for the memory and for the moment still limited capacity of discernment.
Without a computer and an Internet connection not even this web page would be visible and it seems that in August of 1991 (the 6) have been accessible to the public the first graphics pages for a discussion group and also the e-mail was made available in 1991 but had to spend a few more years before the widespread use of World Wide Web. The computers that can run modern browsers were becoming increasingly compact and fast as computing power, memory, flexibility, or "multitasking"; whereas the first computer designed (initially with relay and gears, then valves, transistors, integrated circuits..) occupied considerable space. In ancient the Greeks also used for astronomical use mechanical calculators as shown by archaeological finds; moreover also to Archimedes was stolen by the Romans a complex astronomical instrument.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and the binary calculation
The inventor of the calculus of binary type used in computers was Leibniz (Leipzig 1646-1716 Hanover), in fact the mathematician-philosopher drew in 1679 a medal that says on the top and bottom edges "One has created everything from nothing, One is necessary" and in the center on the binary number system necessary for the operation of his newly developed calculator. From this type of design can also be derived roughly the thought almost mystical of the philosopher expressed in the "Monadology" of 1714 which relates to previous studies on calculus "A new method for the maxima and the minima" of 1684 in addition to the concept of pre-established harmony that guides everything like a smart gear. Leibniz with his calculator able to do four basic operations would raise humanity from the difficulties of manual calculation, but died alone (among bitter controversy with other crafty scientists), abandoned by all.
Blaise Pascal between calculations and spirituality
To help the father to make the calculations B. Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand 1623-1662 Paris) built at just eighteen years old the "machine arithmétique" that even had already devised other mechanical calculators is considered the first project designed for the public, portable and easy to use even if still limited (according to some ancestor of the computer). In addition to trying to facilitate the calculations, the great mathematician-philosopher student of Mersenne also managed to demolish the belief that nature abhors the vacuum completing the experiments of Torricelli, then worked intensively on the relationship between science, philosophy and religion until to compromising his health and to declare itself "man whole of God." For Pascal in the "Religious thoughts" of the 1654 the man discovers himself and God with the inspiration of Jesus and must believe, almost on a bet.. albeit a little in opposition to the church.
In August of 1981 (the 12) was launched the first personal computer to the general public produced by an American company manufacturer of mainframes initially contained in "wide blue envelopes", who gave to the new computer an innovative microprocessor invented by an Italian designer and an operating system similar to that adopted by the first computer kits that used a project derived from studies conducted at PARC in California in 1971. Before can conveniently place a computer on the desk at home, the technology has had to travel a long way considering that the first handheld calculator called the "pascaline" was built in 1642 by mathematician, philosopher, religious-Jansenist Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), but was G.W. Leibniz (1646-1716) which basically invented the binary calculation, then there was a slow progress that led until to the replacement of the mechanical gears with electronic circuits.
One of the older technological components of the computer as design and installed on the motherboard on a chip that runs until 1979 the start-up operations and the recognition of equipment supplied should be gradually replaced by the new standard UEFI much faster and that would give the start of the computer in few seconds. When you turn on the computer's Bios (Basic input/output system) allows communication between the operating system and hardware on the calculator machine checking each time the various interfaces and this takes some time before the start of the operating system, but the standard Uefi (Unified extensible firmware interface) allows fast input/output devices recognition, and generally a greater flexibility. Of note that some operating systems are already fitted with a boot process much faster.
More and more people use the Web Internet in the world and it is estimated that approximately three percent of energy consumed worldwide is used to power various systems consisting of computers, servers, computer banks.. and the cost of a data center can be a substantial item for the budget business especially if they are equipped with old computers that require special air conditioning only for the cooling systems. New technologies are much more efficient with minimal energy loss and then to stabilize the temperatures are enough simple cooling air, so even with a reduced environmental impact from the ecological point of view and lower emissions of carbon dioxide even when the intent is surfing the net or look up data on the Web, real-time researches that enable a large number of applications and computer servers.
Every time we encounter some new flaw in the operating system or browser used to surf the internet, as recently happened in a case of computer attack to a search engine, and although the issue has been resolved is the question of how many computers may have been exposed to malicious computer attacks of individuals ready to exploit these security gaps to operate unhindered against the neighbor, and now multiply the systems and computer programs that help to prevent the remote control of a computer. A major problem is for the antivirus scan for code that have been encrypted to avoid detection when scanning the program parts or all of the algorithms that automatically identify such as dangerous the software triggering a protection, which usually allows to proceed manually to the elimination of the virus.
The wave of freezing cold and snow that hit many countries and in some cases paralyzed road traffic, rails and airplanes has caused many deaths (over ninety) due to frostbite and a great number of accidents and slip, some are unlucky and got stuck without being able to travel over the hardships they face the risk of not having reimbursed a costly ticket. Broken power lines, roads closed and unfavorable climatic conditions significantly raise the level of stress by losing lucidity and balance to the nervous apparatus, but breathing deeply and slowly is possible can remain calm. As regards the phenomenon of intense cold in the hottest years on average, it is likely that it is always connected to the global warming trend that tends to cause hot summers and cold winters, braking patterns that mitigate the temperatures.
Computers to perform many functions for which they were designed need of special programs suited to the operating system that equips this kind of complex "counting machine", and a large Web company announced the launch of a new programming language features suitable for modern processors, which should facilitate the dynamic calculation.. (a kind of variant of C, C++). In the babel of languages that let interact with the computer that once compiled by dedicated programs end up in much the same basic structure, was made in 1957 about with the Algol (Algorithmic language) an attempt to unify, to write a rationale and clear language of universal type fairly simple and free of redundancies, but has not had much diffusion although some of the most interesting features were adopted from other languages.
Some European countries have well-dimensioned networks and connections that allow computerized data to travel in Internet at appropriate speeds, but in others as well as a certain slowness of these flows also lament a poor use of information technology for a large proportion of the population, as for example in Italy where many people also have problems of "digital divide" with connections to broadband access even at low speeds. Be noted that despite are elapsed forty years from the first transmission of packet data (29/10/1969 Arpanet although in reality the different Internet Protocol is of the 1983) many people do not use the network or have poor technologic information, while in advanced countries are scheduled for fifty megabit broadband connections and also developing countries aimed at strengthening very large network and campaigns of using the Internet Web.
Children tend to increasingly use computers keyboards to write and communicate, so that now even simple messages are typed and sent electronically via e-mail in a shorter time since you need time and effort to write them manually, but so seems to lessen the habit of using a beautiful handwriting (calligraphy) and writings often have the appearance of a rigid and mechanical cursive unadorned of details that can characterize it. Practicing to write manually with a personal style can be useful to develop individual artistic skills and in some cultures there were special courses to improve and enrich the writings, moreover the write data can be retrieved on the personality of the individual, which vary depending on the state of mood.. all information that does not result from a written text on a computer keyboard.
The trend of new technology is oriented to produce very cheap computer and that has a reduced ambience footprint through the use of recycled components, green materials, using more efficient LED lighting displays, processors that do not absorb too much power although little potent than the model of the new generation. For years, there are simplified portable computers designed for the purpose of education for children and now in large countries like India are expected to provide the students with computer truly economic (five hundred rupees or ten dollars, through incentives) designed to allow a diffusion of these technologies even to those who until now could not use it, but also some with a shortage of hardware and software which limits the performance to save as much as possible and with some ecological questions of how the raw materials are recycled.
Opening the personal mail boxes are often found to be submerged by junk e-mail (Spam), which in addition to losing a lot of time producing a considerable pollution that was estimated at about 17 million tonnes of carbon dioxide each year, from the moment that the computer consumes more energy while we are intent to delete the unwanted e-mail or to try to locate the correct mail sent electronically (without consider the Internet connection which must necessarily remain active in order to operate). All these annoying junk e-mail continues to increase, it seems even of 192% in one year, with consequent dangers to computers vulnerable to viruses that may bypass the spam filters, links to pages with deceptive graphics programmed to steal sensitive data and spyware programs that record all traces left from the navigation on the Web by assigning a profile to the user.
Many electronic devices are now equipped with technology that replaces the touch keys or other systems that interact with the software, sometimes with some slowness but with the possibility to act directly on the video, moving and change the pictures.. and this type of technologic style seem begins even to be adopted in the common use, for example is possible to choose to the restaurant the menu on "video tables" acting with the fingers as if they were computer screens (hoping that the food and ordered drinks are not produced with the chemicals). As regards the production of new devices seems that many producers ignore the rules of environmental protection, and the Internet net while on the one hand allows new "unexpected" explorations in the knowledge field of the other reserves of pitfall traps on security and subtraction of data with the aggravating circumstance of the discovery of new leaks in the browsers (from running to update).
Spend much time in front of the computer and other electronic devices could hinder the sleep or impoverish the quality, even use the phone the night before going to bed seems might damage the normal rhythm of sleep and this little healthy habit typical of the boys sometimes ends to impact on daily activities, from the moment that the fatigue and lack of clarity does not allow a good concentration and optimal performances. Other studies suggest that should keep the headphones and the MP3 music players.. at a distance of more than three centimeters from the defibrillator or the pacemaker for cause of the magnetic interference that may alter the normal operation of the equipment and changes in the impulses that regulate heart beats in patients who have implanted these sophisticated devices, (but some tests show that is quite rare that this can happen).
The new technologies have a significant impact on the environment both during production is to recycle old products and now many companies are equipped to make cleaner, low-impact pollutant production, through the adoption of the "ecologically sustainable" materials and plants that emit little CO2, but for the recovery of noble metals and reusable materials such as computers, monitors, mobile phones.. outdated, remains the problem of disposal without controls, which often happens in Africa and other developing countries. When is throws in waste technological product should control what the sector that deals with recycled products because the chemical components which release into the atmosphere during the working processes could be very aggressive also for the staff that operate to these plants (including children in Ghana for example) and for the whole ecosystem.
The prime numbers are divisible by themselves and for one, and then only for two positive integers, in a long series from 1, 2, 3, 5 .. up to incalculable numbers for the human mind, but thanks to the processing power of 75 computers networked math at UCLA have discovered a first number from record with thirteen million digits. These are very long prime numbers called Mersenne prime, by the name of the discoverer Marin Mersenne (Oizé 1588 - Paris 1648), that before entering in the Minor Order studied at the famous La Flèche College; also known his friendship with Descartes to that sometimes is accompanied although he has developed an own philosophy of great thickness all in a religion and musical harmonic optics. The doctrine of Mersenne leads to the birth of modern physics or quantitative a kind of "critical empiricism" which comes to justify the miracle that as exceptions to the laws of nature ends to confirm their own.
To try to prevent and combat the spread of that kind of epidemic obesity that characterizes the economies technology was developed at a computer mounted on a tapis roulant that allows to work to the workstation while walking at a low speed (variable) on what was called "Walkstation" which lets you burn about 100 calories per hour walking 1.6 kilometers. The lifestyle with little physical activity and reduced energy expenditure is considered by many rather harmful to the health, as well as spending long hours in front of the computer forces to assume a posture little natural for this usually is recommend making small exercises stretching to take active the blood circulation and as soon as possible and try to get up and relax completely by finding even a moment of relaxation for a salutary recharge.
Accurate analysis of data relating to particular seismic waves that shake the ground seems to be predictive of a possible earthquake, and especially the shock of slow up and down type rather destructive since they cause series of movements in the perpendicular direction of the wave that may affect the stability of buildings. American researchers have identified a series of "abnormal" waves ten hours before and also two hours before the earthquake, also measuring instruments with very sensitive variations in cracks that form in the soil (as open and then close) and the barometric pressure believe it can get other indications predictor of the earthquake. Previously some scientists had advanced the proposal of using the accelerometers present in the new portable computers, to protect the hard disk from any falls, with special software to form a network of alert for shocks of earthquakes in real time.
An equipe of Italian scientists has developed a simulator that uses the quantum waves by Philip Anderson (Indianapolis 1923 - quanta physicist, Nobel Prize in 1977) through the transformation of the potassium atoms first cooled almost to the absolute zero and then transformed into waves through the action of a sort of laser cage beams that form a virtual crystal capable of trapping the atoms. This technology should allow in the future to achieve high computers that reduce the time of calculation for example by tens minutes to thousandths of a second or allow to calculate the structure of the universe, the experiment made at the Lens of Florence was published in a prestigious international magazine and opens the path to a new type of development based on the quanta or qbit. The localization of waves of matter although for the moment is just a virtual testing could radically change the system of calculation toward models to much more advanced.
Too many features and options on computers and related programs sometimes can put in difficulty users disadvantaged and now seems is available some software and technological devices is to make easier the navigation is for the various types of communication, such as simplified browser that exclude the use of more complex functions while protecting from a little ethical sites content, as well as a still experimental helmets wearable for people paralysed in order to exploit the brain waves to try to interact with the computer. To note with regard to security in general area where every individual can feel in some way disadvantaged, it seems that we should make particular attention to the printers that could be rather exposed to the computer Internet attack or subtraction of documents so that there is someone that says the press is now decidedly less sure that in the Gutenberg era.
It happens that some technological devices with the alternation of design and performance require an amount of energy always increasing and even chemical components or metals with non-negligible environmental impact, such as videogames of last generation are equipped with graphics processors and very powerful calculation that allow a considerable realism, but also consume much more energy of classic video games, including the large flat video screen television absorb an amount of energy decidedly superior (especially those to plasma) than the old cathode ray tubes or simply compared to the normal flat screens. Worth noting that all the computers in the world counted both contribute to global warming if not used with shrewdness and sustainable criteria, for example, is possible could try to save energy not leaving them unnecessarily running and replace with new models to minor environmental impact making attention to the getting over operations.
A technology designed almost forty years ago, but that only recently has been developing seems can have positive implications of transistors that unlike those normal may also recall the flow of transactions executed, called for this reason that allow memristor thanks to special connections among them also to perform the functions of transistors as well as keep all information entered on the computer before the turn off and then the data will be released immediately available with the turn on (but is still studies on a small scale). Some time ago would also be discussed on what could be the future of the artificial intelligence and whether it should be based on the model of switch on-off, or that permitting a "superposition" which admits both the positions (experimentation called quantum), but in the meantime the evolution of all the technology according to some seems to be so fast that can not stay in step with the constant innovations.
To the development of the more complex faculties of the thought of the individuals contributes the type of formation and with the computer science technology it would seem that also the "architecture" of the thought is being modified and that would tend to adapt to the computerized models with logons in the brain that they would facilitate the understanding of the numerous stimuli (sometime a few stressful and pressing on the plan of the speed, at least in an optical of equilibrium also with other types of cultural stimuli). Interesting to notice as also the computers are becoming more and more fast and tend to integrate at the same time various technologies that demand powerful processors equipped of miniaturizes transistor fruit of nanotechnologies, and in a close future from little atoms of a single layer of graphite it will be possible to gain a micro electronic switch, than in practical it is to the base of all the computer science technology.. (a great number of on-off shunters and programs that control them).
The visibility on the Web is allowed from the portals of search that are linked on motors that would have to scan million of pages automatically in order to allow to the navigators of the Internet net to find the information wished, but in practical it must manually signal the page to the several motors so that it can be characterized, in contrary case is nearly impossible to find a site if already it is not known or publicized to payment always that is not writes directly the address in the navigation bar. The decision of a great computer company to acquire one of the main search engines could re-enter in that species of "war" of the click with data analyzes in order to characterize the preferences of the customer, to offer publicity aimed, concur to the purchase of consumption products.. but the criteria of selection of the pages are often "dark" (like happen for this salutary site evidently uncomfortable and victim of strange errors), moreover in theory at least in Italy the traces of the searches on the Web would have to be cancelled.
Seen from the probe Cassini the Earth would seem to have of the rings, moreover have been characterized approximately others sixty moons that they belong to the Saturn planet, but the more interesting discovery recently regard to the observation of the Cosmos is relative to a wide powder disc not sighted previously round to a far binary star system that it could induce the astronomers to reformulate the computerized conception of the Universe at least regard the black holes and the formation of planets (for cause of the great gravitational forces that are originated attracting the surrounding matter). Some time ago had been also recorded close to the constellation of the Centauro to 220 light years from the Earth the organic molecule presence ("Tolin") made up of carbon that dissolving itself they would originate of the amino acids that are to the base of the life, that they are present also in the solar system (but on our planet the oxygen not to consent the formation).
The typical industrial societies style of life imposes through aimed advertising campaigns to often change every type of product also in the case there isn't the properly necessity; this happens as an example with the technological products like computer, little telephones, televisions.. that by now they seem to have a cycle of life truly short and not always they come get over correctly, with the risk that heavy metals and dangerous chemistries substances end in order to pollute the ambience. The problematic tied to the getting over of the refusals are under the eyes of all in Italy and has been also many cases of damages to the health of persons (but also of vegetables, animals..) that lived near rubbish dumps not adequately monitored, without to consider that if the pollution catches up a deep water-bearing stratum, as it can happen with the batteries to the cadmium, is risked to deteriorate the entire ecosystem.
A type of technology based on microsensors to the silicon able to picking up the movements of the hand will be soon available for the "remote control" mouse, than in practical is used as was one baton allowing to be distant from the computer, produced from a famous company. The invention of the first version of the famous "rat" with the cable and the rubberized metallic little ball must to Douglas Engelbart in 1968; but it has been commercialized only in 1981, then with the time has endured of the improvements thanks to several the models with two or three push-buttons, small wheel of sliding and without thread, but that it forced always the customer to lean it on one surface in order to assure of the correct operation. To notice that the type of adopted technology is used also in miniaturizes apparatuses to be able to finding various atmospheric data or useful to the doctors in order to diagnose of pathologies in the case of the computerized pill that is swallowed.
In the modern civilization are many the persons that pass great part of the day seated to a computer and in these cases to maintain one correct posture "straight and not to squeeze" on the chair with the arms folded with an angle of 90 degrees on the keyboard and the face to the height of the screen, can help to prevent not only the classics pains (cervical, lumbar..) to the vertebral column, but also simple headache or inflammation to the articulations. In order to maintain a simple "ergonomic attitude" it is to times necessary to know the posture and like the forces are unloaded on the rachides, without to forget to raise itself when possible from the chair for some short exercise of stretching.
Somebody measures between the reference parameters of an advanced society also the percentage of citizens that use the computer, the frequency of the Internet logins, if the wide band is available.. and to how much seems under this last point of view in Italy are still of the deficiencies in the ADSL connections in some peripheral zones, sometimes in mountain or in some regions to spot of leopard. Beyond to the advantages and the new interesting services of the net, although the numerous detractors, remains also the problem of the trash mail, the spies and the virus of varied type that infest the nets data transmissions, and they are becoming more and more insidious (to think that until little years ago the spyware did not exist); at last it must remember also the disturber, who copy or tries to force the site, the mail and make to lose precious time.. (one reflex of the world).