By exploiting a simulation made possible by computer-based computing performed by supercomputers about eight powerful radio telescopes scattered around the globe, so as to simulate the size of a single huge telescope, researchers would made a photograph of the black hole at the center of our galaxy (the event horizon since light is also devoured by the tremendous gravitational mass that comes from the collapse of a supernova). In order to make a real picture of the black hole, which has a mass millions or billions of times that of the Sun, should build a telescope of the size of the whole Earth, so it was necessary to use a trick. This is an important event because it is hypothesizes that black holes are responsible for the formation of the galaxies and without them the universe would probably be very different from what we see.
Using radio and infrared telescopes astronomers would have been able for the first time to observe the material ejected by a so-called black hole (because of the massive mass is not visible with normal telescopes), almost with terms figured as a jet eruption of particles hurled at a great distance from the poles of what appears to be a kind of disc that could help a better understanding of the process leading to the formation of a galaxy; in fact it is assumed that at the center of the galaxies there can be a superconcentrated mass that could be millions of times that of our Sun. Initially this material that is very bright to the infrared had been mistaken as an explosion that occurs at the end of the astronomical life of a supernova, but after six years of observations finding that the phenomenon continued they would understood that it could not be a supernova.
At thirty-nine light years seven Earth-like planets
There might be water in the seven new planets orbiting a small ultra-cool star discovery initially in may 2016 in our galaxy to thirty-nine light years from Earth and defined by astronomers quite similar to our planet and therefore potentially some of them might harbour life considering the appropriate dimensions, mass, distance from the star from that depends the temperature although further studies are needed to confirm these data. The star would have a mass that is only eight percent of our Sun and the size of Jupiter and the planets orbit within touching distance, for example in figured manner about inside the orbit of Mercury, and perhaps they originated in more distant orbits and then have migrated closer to the star with a face blocked that rotating always looks the small and slightly luminous star as a face of our Moon that always looks at the Earth.
Using a laser to accurately measure the optical or spectroscopic properties of antimatter captured in some kind of trap containing antihydrogen researchers at CERN in Geneva would have discovered that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same properties; in fact even the theory supports the hypothesis that in the violent explosion called Big Bang at the origin of our universe were formed equal amounts of matter and antimatter that then are annihilate into other particles and energy due to the process whereby the particles interacting disappear since the sum of their quantum numbers is zero. Concepts that are difficult to understand and to set an example on the topic the mathematician Paul Dirac (discoverer of the Positron in 1930 as antiparticle of the electron) said that like x² = 4 has two solutions x = 2 or x = -2 even in the universe there are two solutions, one positive and one negative.
Space agencies are probably interested in the exploitation of the resources of the Mars planet, because it is unlikely that the man can live on the cold red planet with an average temperature of minus fifty-four degrees Celsius, strong radiation and strong temperature variations, but in the future is expected to bring the man on Mars. The last European probe of the project designed to take soil samples and search for life forms, which cost overall one billion and half of euros, apparently crashed badly to the ground and does not emit any kind of signal. The latest comments on the visible universe are providing a new picture of the Cosmo; in fact it is assumed that there are ten times more galaxies than previously thought and a majority of them are too weak and too far to be seen by us. Must keep in mind that ninety percent of the galaxies have not yet been studied.
Only four light years from our solar system there would be according to astronomers a rocky planet that might have a temperature suitable to allow the liquid state of water rotating at a distance of about seven million kilometres from Proxima Centauri, the star closest to us as the name suggests; but classified as a red dwarf and then burning at a low temperature so the water not cools to the point of becoming ice and not is heated until it becomes steam. It must also have an atmosphere to deflect UV rays considered one hundred times more intensity than those that hit the Earth and researchers still do not know whether it is present or can be formed, however the proximity of the star makes possible explorations with probes. Now there is speculation that in the Milky Way Galaxy there are billions of planets adapted to life though probably too far away to be reached.
Using the data collected by the Hubble space telescope and the Keck telescope in Hawaii, astronomers would get a measurement of the expansion of the universe that is think should be rather precise finding that traditional theories do not coincide and indeed something does not explain an expansion more accelerated by five to nine percent of expected against the calculations above. Perhaps the general theory of relativity which is the basis of the Standard Model is slightly incorrect, or there may be features in the structure of the universe yet unknown, for example is assume the existence of another subatomic particle or the influence of the so-called dark matter that drives and accelerates the expansion over the 13.8 billion-years history of the universe. The explanation might also be in a different conception of the universe or some kind of deception of our vision.
Rock samples defined as interesting of what should be the asteroid that sixty-six million years ago has decreed the end of the dinosaurs were extracted at a depth of almost thirteen hundred metres into the crater called Chicxulub off the coast of Mexico, whose deepest ring is located under six hundred meters of sediments in what is now the Gulf of Mexico while the outermost ring is hidden partially under the Yucatan Peninsula. Geophysical research carried out in the subsoil also suggest the presence of structures resembling to mountain chains. This huge crater is thought to have been caused by an object with a diameter of about eighteen kilometers which struck the Earth's crust and this study also raises the issue of protecting the planet from any large asteroids that might strike it in the future and the technologies useful in the prevention of these events.
Is thought to be billions planets suitable for life
After the discovery with a small telescope along just sixty centimeters in Chile, but made by astronomers in Belgium, of three new perhaps potentially habitable planets that revolve around a dwarf ultra-cool star at thirty-nine light years from Earth, researchers speculate that planets like Earth may not be quite as unique and there might be in the Milky Way billions of planets suitable for life. For the moment with the current technology provides the distances do not allow to reach them (thankfully saw how man is reducing the Earth) and for example a spaceship would take about tirty thousands years to bring the astronauts on one of the new planets discovered. To make this type of research on new planets is record the intensity of the light emitted by the star and verifying any changes can roughly calculate the mass, distance and times of revolution of the planets.
A really unusual celestial body with full oxygen atmosphere would have been detected by astronomers in Brazil and Germany by analyzing data collected by a special telescope that scrutinizes the universe (SDSS in New Mexico) able to observe the thirty-five percent of the sky and about five hundred million celestial objects. This is a star that is no longer active for a long time where the gravitational pull has grown attracting heavier elements and gases like oxygen while lighter like helium and hydrogen have left floating on the surface, so basically the atmosphere of the star is almost entirely composed of compressed oxygen so that it has a mass equivalent to sixty percent of our Sun being slightly larger size of the Earth. Needless to say that is not an appropriate atmosphere to human survival due to the enormous pressure that would crush instantly an hypothetical astronaut.
What has been touted as a remarkable discovery in astronomy referring to gravitational waves can be compared as the first observations of celestial bodies; in fact, had already been announced in 2014 analyzing data received from a radio telescope at the South Pole, then there are also those who argue that the discovery dates back to 2010 or earlier. In theory these gravitational waves propagate in the cosmos figuratively in the same way as the characteristic concentric waves that are formed on the water if throw a rock, but at the speed of light and leaving a very weak signal that would be (?) heard a noise coming from the merger of two black holes. Lately the physics is facing many difficulties and can't explain yet many theories, for example as quantum mechanics that is used to describe only extremely small objects and not to the celestial bodies.
The statements about the discovery of a distant planet from us one thousand and four hundred light years away that would be similar to the Earth rotating around a star at a similar distance and about with the same amount of time (about twenty days plus) would seem premature since it is not yet known the mass, parameter critical to understanding whether this celestial body can be rocky or of gas, then also in the case of identical conditions which would allow life must don't forget that probably have to match a wide range of chemical and physical factors that make our planet a very special case. The distances might say "fortunately" not allow to the technology currently available even to send a probe, then it is not very clear the stability that in the Earth is made possible by the action of the motion of the Moon satellites and in part from the other planets.
The first images taken during the approach of a probe to the dwarf planet Pluto seems to be larger and less icy than expected, but expects send latest picture (which will take some time) taken at close range, for this type of spatial observations of twelve thousand five hundred kilometers. The probe was launched over nine years ago and the mission designed before the Planet Pluto was downgraded and then some wonder whether the project would be supported the same, however it is an important goal and then there will be the opportunity to have more info on this distant and little-known area of the solar system. It should be noted that the ninth Planet Pluto was discovered in 1930 with a technique similar to that used previously for the planet Neptune, and then in practice with calculations on interference and disruption of motion of the orbits of the other planets.
Equipping of special glasses or better shielded from welder can watch today from Italy and across Europe at about half past ten a partial eclipse covering well over half of the solar disk, but it will be total in Faroa Islands and Svalbard archipelago in Norway (Arctic Ocean). Eclipses of the Sun are more frequent than those of Moon though not exceed never the five in a year and this number depends on the angle of inclination of the lunar orbit relative to the ecliptic, if the two celestial bodies they were on the same level there would be an Eclipse of the Sun at every junction and then every new moon. Experts argue that the eclipse might be useful to study the performance of photovoltaic panels in the absence of partial irradiation of the Sun, whereas the last Eclipse of this magnitude was in 1999 when they were still a few panels installed and with low energy efficiency.
There would be two different structures in the iron core located approximately five thousand kilometers to the center of the Earth with differently oriented crystals, at least according to a joint study by Chinese and American researchers carried out by analysing the echo of earthquakes in the depths of the Earth and analysing the changes while passing through several layers. The hypothesis is that the core of the planet is roughly the size of the moon with two concentric structures whose inner part with crystals oriented in East-West direction (looking downwards on figured manner from the North Pole); instead in the outer the crystals are oriented from North to South. These assumptions about various structures suggest that there may have been some dramatic changes during the formation of our planet in the solidification process that started about one billion years ago.
Before fully discharged the batteries of the probe that has taken soil samples of the Comet called 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko will be able to transmit data from the small laboratory with a file containing a computers type message from which it was downloaded the sequence of information. Is talk about traces of organic molecules by the chemical analysis of gas made probably without being able to remove the material with the drill because of the hardness of the surface of the comet (under a dusty layer), but hopefully can continue searching when the probe that was given a spin command from its position in the shade where it bounced slipping onto the ice may will take a bit of sunlight during the journey at almost twenty kilometres per second of the Comet towards the Sun.
On Earth the small secondary probe that has been landed on the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko would weigh about one hundred kilograms but in the space is virtually devoid of weight for this had to be anchored to the ground of the comet after the slow down seven hours after detachment from the main Rosetta probe on one of the few little rough spots chosen, at a distance of almost five hundred million kilometers from Earth. Are already available of the photographs taken during the complex approach manoeuvre while await the data and surveys of samples of comet for example taken from the drill since it is a kind of analysis on the structure of the solar system at the time of its formation over four and a half billion years ago with the idea that comets may have brought plenty of water on Earth by contributing to the formation of the oceans and thus maybe of the life.
To be able to achieve with the probe Rosetta comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko astronomers have had to perform complex maneuvers transmitted pulses that each employ over twenty two minutes to get to the commands of the probe sequence then sent for final approach required nearly two days after ten years of travel from Earth and for the first time it was possible to get some close-ups of the celestial body (as big as a quarter of a city), which is rather irregular. The launch of the probe was carried out in March 2004 and has used a series of orbital passes the gravity of the Earth and Mars to increase its speed and reach the comet that from the surveys have an atmosphere of gas and dust and also a coma which that will be highlighted with the progressive approach to the Sun, then in November there should be more direct analysis.
According to the observations of astronomers Ganymede is one of the five satellites in the solar system that could have oceans hidden beneath the icy surface and it is assumed that there might be a kind of layered structure due to the significant effect of salinity over the oceans, and then to a first frozen layer on the surface follows a water layer, then a second layer followed again by iced water, a third layer frozen and finally a layer of water above a deeper rocky seafloor. It is estimated that Ganymede which orbits the large gaseous Jupiter planet can have twenty times the volume of Earth's oceans with a depth of eight hundred kilometers and since it is thought that the first forms of life on Earth were formed by thermal bubbles escaping from the bottom of the oceans by the interaction of water and rock, by analogy Ganymede might have the same favorable conditions.
With a four-meter telescope in Chile has identified a new planet very small (about four hundred and fifty kilometers across), far from the Sun, reddish, and so frozen that his consistency could be harder than that of a terrestrial rock, tentatively called 2012 VP113, but astronomers warn that the observation window is very small and examined hundreds of celestial bodies in orbit around the Solar System waiting to be seen, some of which probably larger than Pluto or perhaps even larger than Mars and the Earth itself. In its highly eccentric orbit of this dwarf planet is not close more than twelve billion kilometers from the Sun and the point farthest distance increases dramatically until sixty-seven billion kilometers from our star employing four thousand years to complete one full orbit around the Sun.
As happens to waves that propagate into the water at a specific point in space of weak gravitational waves, ripples primordial, propagate at the speed of light in the universe and astronomers with a radio telescope at the South Pole have identified these waves crossing the space and help to give an explanation to the theory of expansion of the Universe and also to that of Einstein's theory of general relativity, published in 1915. In the first moments of the universe would have caused a massive explosion known as cosmic inflation (like a balloon that is inflated) so fast with gravitational waves that remain as evidence of a kind of primitive tremor. Other theories that have not yet been proven as one of the "superstrings", but that by now seem more plausible, pose questions about the Cosmo model based on the Big Bang.
Around the world there are over twenty thousand space debris of the size of an orange, at least from what appears from the estimates of the astronomers who consider this so-called "space junk" a real danger for satellites, space stations and missions, for this reason technical Japanese have developed a kind of electrodynamics tether of three hundred meters long made of thin steel cables and aluminum for the cleanup of debris that should be pushed to the ground and partly burned by the atmosphere. It will not be necessary energy to power this device since its oscillation is expected to generate electricity by interacting with the Earth's magnetic field even if it is still an experimental project necessitated by the exponential increase in space of the debris hit repeatedly by fragments that as projectiles traveling at twenty-eight thousand kilometers per hour.
The news that a comet observed for the event billed as spectacular even for the ordinary observer to the naked eye has instead dissolved in its close passage near the Sun is reminiscent of other events of the past that have inspired important writings, for example in 1604 between 9 and October 10 eyes of astronomers trying to see the celestial conjunction of Jupiter, Saturn and Mars and so their approach, but at some point appear watched with amazement a celestial body that became quite bright and then disappear. Following this discovery, Galileo decided to write an ironic dialogue using a pseudonym for precaution when already questioned some astronomical positions of the time that dominated the conception of the "fixed stars, perfect and of eternal motion", because obviously not to be so fixed if they could appear and disappear suddenly.
Using a ten-meter telescope in Hawaii an international team of observers would have found a galaxy that has formed over thirteen billion years ago and then calculating as the date of the Big Bang front of further eight hundred million years it would be one of the most distant galaxies ever observed, moreover this time the sighting of a star formation also considered very active is confirmed with the spectrograph. To calculate the distances is evaluated the shift of red color (redshift) of the spectral lines of the celestial bodies examined, taking into account the cosmic background radiation, since a hot gas of photons remains of a primitive big explosion fills the universe. This theory ultimately is not so obvious, and indeed may be possible the clash or fusion of two universes has produced our, in a figurative mode a little as happens when two planets collide.
A chemical component of plastic type such as propylene very present in normal life on earth as it is used (refined in polyethylene) for common food containers in the kitchen would have been detected by the Cassini spacecraft using one infrared spectrometer on Titan, a satellite of Saturn, whose atmosphere is composed of hydrocarbons and methane in a special measure and then nitrogen. The action of the sun and its ultraviolet rays combined with particles pushed strongly by the magnetic field of Saturn break down methane and probably the fragments aggregate into larger molecules such as in this case with three carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms to a chemical ingredient plastic rather special. In 1655 Huygens discovered Titan that has an orbital period of 15.9 days around Saturn, and in the past has been also identified a kind of reflective continent under the atmosphere that surrounds it.
After reaffirming that climate change is the planet from human activities are unequivocal, international experts have reviewed the data related to the rise in sea levels by 2100 passing from 18 - 59 cm expected in 2007 to a quantifiable increase between 26 - 82 cm from the moment that the pace of a thaw in the Arctic would be doubled, then with respect to the average global temperature it will be difficult to avoid an increase of two degrees by the end of century, although in this case there are different forecast scenarios. Since 2007 would be considerably increased computing capabilities of climate models and data are freely available, so there is no plot (considering that lately have been put forward criticisms on these models) and still progress the knowledge about climate so proceed to update the calculations that remain improvement forecast.
The solar atmosphere and its magnetic field have been studied only with computer models since the satellites sent man would melt from the heat of the sun, then would not even be visible to the intense sunlight, but analyzing the data and images obtained by telescopes of a comet discovered in 2011 and has remained intact in the solar corona (although after a couple of days the celestial body made of ice has melted), the researchers would be able to get information about the solar atmosphere and the magnetic field that would not have been possible to get in any other way. The brightness of the comet "Lovejoy" has increased a lot closer to the Sun and so with temperatures of millions of degrees Celsius and then its tail suffered as some interference, almost a kind of dance, because of strong solar magnetic field giving the possibility to the first time to understand some of its characteristics.
Among the most reliable hypotheses on the origins of the Moon there would be that big of a celestial body that hit the Earth four and a half billion years ago, causing a disk of debris that later are thickened to form our satellite and the heat that is developed by the impact would evaporate hydrogen and other volatile elements giving the moon the appearance dry we see from the beginning. New analysis from both space missions that of lunar samples taken by the Apollo missions would have shown that traces of water remain on the surface and below that has as a particular fingerprint, which can be identified by the amount of hydrogen and deuterium (an isotope of the hydrogen, which has an extra neutron), and according to researchers the water could have come from a comet with high relative percentage of deuterium-hydrogen are and is thought for a high presence of carbonaceous chondrites.
Analyzing the data concerning the distance of the Voyager-1 probe some researchers argue that it may be now, with its eighteen billion kilometers away from Earth, beyond the influence of the Sun even if not everyone agrees on this hypothesis and argue that it is still in the Solar System, in any case it is remarkable longevity of this human instrument of observation launched in 1977, but has a little ecological plutonium power source of energy that will run out in about a decade by turning off the board instrumentation. The spacecraft travels in a vacuum at a distance of over one hundred and twenty times that between the Earth and the Sun transmits signals employing sixteen hours to reach Earth, and the data concerning cosmic rays and power down of energetic particles at high intensity suggest it could be the edge (heliopause) of the Solar System.
Analyzing the data collected from the "Planck" satellite astrophysicists have designed a kind of map color of the background radiation, like a picture of the universe as a child, with much greater precision than in the past and have suggested that there may be other theory as well as that of the big-bang (13.8 billion years ago) such as a cyclic universe or the clash of two universe at the origin of the great energy that then the time has turned on matter and then atoms (from the galaxies, stars, planets up to living creatures). Our expertise is currently too limited to have a complete picture of the issue, but a few more details obtained by other studies can venture the hypothesis that there may be billions of universes and therefore the possibility that they may collide or merge freeing increasingly large amounts of energy which remains a weak detectable trace.
Every year we can see with telescopes several comets and from Thursday [07/03] we can see with the naked eye a comet that is approaching to the Sun, and in November another comet could put on a show with his long tail lit by sunlight; in fact comet comes from the Greek kometes which means star (head), with long hair and the hair should be a kind of "dirty snowball" that would be a core of ice formed by frozen water, methane, ammonia and cyanogen gas mixed with mineral matter that sublimate when the celestial body is closer to the Sun and the gas in this way also drag of the dust particles that reflect the sunlight. Is thought that the comets can be captured by the planet Jupiter and the motion becomes from parabolic to elliptical, the tail is form from ionized material of the crown pushed away from the electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation of the Sun.
According to astronomers' calculations a small asteroid called 2012 DA14 (acronym derived from the date of discovery) of about forty-five meters should pass in the evening close to the Earth at a distance less than that of normal communication satellites, but there would be no danger of impact and even the possibility to see with the naked eye both because of its small size and the high speed type projectile - [apparently no relation to the meteor shower in the Urals which wounded about one thousand people]. It is thought that the origin of the asteroids comes from small rocky bodies that have not been aggregated to form a planet between Mars and Jupiter. To observe this object with powerful telescopes will give astronomers important information about these heavenly bodies that can in theory also hit the Earth, as has happened in Siberia in 1908 near the Tunguska River where the forest was destroyed perhaps by a meteorite or a comet causing a particular phenomenon never fully understood.
Using a laser to vaporize the surface of a small rock on Mars found in the crater where the rover "Curiosity" is conducting researchers are trying to identify with a particular camera what its basic chemical structure, in practice most what else to put in place the equipment on board the robot must check whether the Martian soil has the characteristics necessary to support life. The rock analyzed with this sophisticated instrument (ChemCam), which uses a spark to fathom the colors of the matter would be a common basaltic rock, but expects that the rover is piloted from the ground to a point where is think that there might be water and then in the future allow a kind of human "landing", much more difficult and complex technique that requires the calculation of a number of complicated computer simulations.
While the big new rover to Mars is positioned for monitoring temperatures over eighty degrees below zero on Earth thermometers often record peaks of heat related to global warming and now we would also be a controversy over the American decision to want to remove the goal of trying to maintain global warming below two degrees centigrade. The living conditions on Mars are not suitable for "human" life because of radiation and temperature on average too low and for the moment (it is a first exploration phase) from the robot driven by a little ecologic nuclear pile was not found water but plenty of dust. Of note changing climate scenario and the planet that torrential rains have hit the Philippines with seventy-two victims and eight hundred five thousand displaced, then in Honduras and in China the population is preparing to face with tropical storms and typhoons.
It might seem at first sight that the grains of sand are not countable, but Archimedes died ~ twenty-two hundred years ago in Syracuse in 212 BC did not give up to the evidence and in his work Sandstone resorting to measures of size available in his time he was able to calculate how many myriads of myriads of grains of sand would fill the sphere of the known world and the cosmos (in this case using the calculations of Aristarchus with heliocentric hypothesis). What then will be called the infinitesimal calculus was for the acute mind of the greek mathematical was a normal method of research relevant to his demonstration on measurements of the circle, the sphere, the cylinder.. and killed roughly and robbed by Romans seems that his tomb was recognizable because of the trace of a cylinder and a sphere to remember her studies. Times are always hard today and now the "rhetoricians" were also seized of the Socratic maieutic.
Considerations on the discovery of the Higgs boson
Shortly after the denial that the neutrino can be faster than light comes the "epochal" discovery of the Higgs boson, but this time there would be the confirmation of the presence of this kind of field that generates the mass of all particles fundamental that aggregate the Higgs boson to gain weight, a little as would happen with small pieces of absorbent paper (of different size and thickness) that permeate of the ink when they are placed at his touch. This ingredient of the standard model, that all matter consists of quarks and leptons, it is important for understanding the structure of the universe although some argued for some time that it is not clear if the Higgs boson may or may not have a mass since if was obtained from the its same field inferred that the relative calculations on the size of the universe would reduce it to the dimension of a ball game. [2015 - already is hypothesized the presence of another particle].
A very powerful telescope that can observe the electromagnetic spectrum to high energy X-rays with details of the sky about a hundred times more accurate than traditional tools was put in orbit, and with this latest technology will be able to peer into the center of the galaxy, then try to give an explanation for such phenomena as the explosion of stars and cosmic rays. Recently Japanese astronomers have recently discovered a galaxy far nearly thirteen billion light years of using telescopes in Hawaii, which add to those observations made in 2010 with the Hubble Space Telescope, and that would tend to confirm the so-called big bang theory that the universe would be "originated" by an explosion over thirteen billion light years ago, so now the research is approaching what is considered a limit, even though by now suggests that there may be other universes.
It was once believed that there were two planets instead of Venus for the oscillation characteristics for the viewer to follow the Sun after sunset and to precede first that to arise, and the 06/06 morning it should be possible to observe from some areas of Italy (equipped with cameras or with filters very dark on the eyes) while passes over the solar disc as a dark dot, at least in its final phase if the weather conditions permit. Venus is the second planet in the solar system and is in average one hundred and seven million kilometers from the sun around which it rotates with a period of two hundred forty-four days, while the distance from Earth varies from 258 to 42 million kilometers, the alignment between the Sun and Venus, Earth has already occurred for example in 1874, 1882, 2004, but due to the mutual inclinations of the orbital planes of intersection of the lines also vary with more or less precise alignments during the transits.
From observations with the Hubble Space Telescope showed that the Andromeda Galaxy is approaching the speed of four hundred miles per hour to the Milky Way which is two and a half million light years of distance and is undoubtedly destined to collide first in four billion years and then to merge with our galaxy in six, but this does not necessarily mean that there will be some collision between the starrs of the two galaxies that should occupy different orbits turning around a new galactic center. In theory calculations simulated the solar system will be in danger of being destroyed and will simply another part of the galaxy in this very distant future in which the nebula of Andromeda considered sister of our will merge because of the action of the dark matter that seems to cause both the accelerating expansion of the universe is the approach of the two galaxies.
Annular eclipse in Japan and astronomical calendars
Monday morning [21/05] will be possible to see in Japan and in a certain band of about three hundred kilometers annular eclipse of the Moon with special intensity that partially obscure the sun, leaving a visible outer ring of light that will be filmed using innovative techniques to restore faithfully to the television viewer the phenomenon in its various stages (including appeals from the authorities in the use of elect to save electricity, especially in the coming summer months due to the shutdown of all nuclear power plants). As for other types of astronomical predictions more or less reliable as those attributed to the Maya, was allegedly found another astronomical calendar that begins where it ends a very well known that has obviously been incorrectly interpreted, however, studies have made it possible to understand as was advanced in the ancient the knowledge of celestial harmony.
Proceeding to the reanalysis of the 1976 Viking Mars mission data that had called "lifeless" on the red planet with modern technology scientists speculate that microbes could be present in soil samples collected by the probe, which then were killed by mistake exposing them to a temperature of one hundred and sixty degrees Celsius, and the confirmation derives from the comparison with the recent methane emissions found on the planet that are considered to be compatible for the survival of some forms of life. Regarding the forthcoming investigations on the Martian surface to wait until August to analyze samples taken from a new probe even though it had already been hypothesized that the type of acid and alkaline soil was suitable for particular crops, but this consideration should not suggest that the cold red planet is a place suitable for human life since it would require a large number of guards.
The signals a time traveled overseas only through of marine cables and in 1962 was possible through an active satellite (project "Telstar") equipped with suitable receiving equipment, amplifiers and transmitters allow telecommunications to large distances in the world even if it was feasible to reflect the signal in a passive way on satellites, but with consequent weak reception on the ground. A satellite is moving around a celestial body at a constant speed and height according to the laws of attraction for which two bodies attract each other with a force proportional to the product of their mass and inversely to the square of the distance; however, sometimes fall to the ground if the calculations are not performed properly, for example in January 1978, a satellite powered by a radioisotope reactor of the "Cosmos" series (the first was launched the 16 March 1962) fell on Canada spreading radioactive particles on the ground in the Manitoba area.
Expected for about a week, the peaks of solar activity with intensity "G-3", but so far have been recorded only minor geomagnetic storms and solar eruptions on the solar surface that practically did not have any effect on the earth (at least compared to the dangers posed of any disturbances on electrical equipment), except for the intense and spectacular borealis auroras. Solar activity is expected to reach its peak next year with a natural cycle of eleven years and it is possible that there may be strong storms "G-5" that can cause widespread electrical blackouts and to communications technologies to the ground, difficulty to manage high-flying and serious problems of interference to space stations. There not should still be particular difficulties and in the past the damage was mainly due to economic issues or difficulties to restart the computer systems such as for example forcing a reset in the space.
What many see as the basic subatomic particle to the structure of matter and then of the visible universe would caught a glimpse using the costly LHC near Geneva, although the description of the epochal in some ways resembles that recently heard [not true] for the neutrino faster of the light and then without confirmation that may assist in the discovery claim. Peter Higgs postulated in 1964 in a mental simulation of matter based on the calculation and collaboration with other physicists that there must be a particle that gave mass to the other with a "field of forces" (Higgs) explaining how the various particles should interact with each other, and this intuition is considered plausible and then by the Large Hadron Collider using big energy trying to put up huge statistics of collisions of particles that disappear quickly, but that can confirm the Higgs theories.
According to international organizations that monitor the health of the planet, the emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have reached record levels in 2010 and would grow faster than the previous decade, for example, the concentration of methane in comparison with pre-industrial era would increased one hundred and fifty-eight percent, whereas it is a gas that causes a very marked greenhouse, as compared to carbon dioxide increased by thirty-nine percent and nitrogen oxide increased by twenty percent. To consider that since 1958 has begun to systematically monitor the CO2 concentrations in the planet that was detecting of about three hundred and fifteen ppm (parts per million) that are gradually increased, while those of methane grew more rapidly mainly because of reduction of forests and their replacement with farms and the melting of polar ices.
It would not be a threat but an opportunity, astronomers say the passage of an asteroid of the size of an aircraft carrier enough close to the Earth (three hundred twenty-five thousand kilometers), it will be possible to observe whether these rocky bodies carrying the "seeds of life" consist of matter based on elements such as carbon and water as ice or trapped in minerals. The asteroid 2005 YU55 will pass between Earth and the Moon and should be visible from Italy for a few days [until 10/11] with a telescope of at least of six inches, if the weather conditions permit, allowing even by amateur astronomers to observe the bumps and craters that distinguish it. Another asteroid called Apophis will pass closer to Earth the 13 April 2029, this large rocky body a bit worried the astronomers even if should not be in the path of an impact with our planet.
On the Earth, the ozonosphere allows life protecting living organisms by filtering out the harmful UV rays from the Sun and the scientists have discovered that around Venus, there would be an ozone layer hundreds of times less dense than that on our planet, in fact, observing the stars through the atmosphere of Venus, they would be less bright for cause of the filter effect for the ultraviolet rays performed by a thin layer of ozone (a gas with three oxygen atoms). Previous studies had already suggested that both Mars and Venus in ancient times there could have been an atmosphere similar to Earth's, then chemical and physical changes led to radical changes would make it almost impossible any form of life. To signal that in some areas on Earth has been recently reported an enlargement of the hole in the ozonosphere that would seem to have a cyclical trend.
The Moon during the total eclipse visible, clouds permitting, in Italy after the 22 hours should see a dark red also because of the volcanic material thrown high up from the volcano Puyehue-Cordon-Caulle in Chile, since the sun's rays that reach the globe will be refracted into the atmosphere by volcanic ashes and the satellite of the Earth will pass right in the middle of the cone of shadow. The lunar phases were studied by the Chaldeans and later by the Greeks that with the astronomer Meton (fifth century BC.) achieved a remarkable precision of calculation, and even today we use a particular golden number, which varies between one and nineteen and was engraved in letters of gold on a temple, for to derive the positions of the Moon; but remains a small gap which was partially corrected by the astronomer Callippus varying the number of moons and its calculations.
With a prolonged observation of the universe through X-rays lasting about three months an Australian student would be able to identify that particular part of matter of the universe that has mass calculated but is not visible with normal telescopes, so this discovery as well as giving a explanation for what is considered almost a "mystery of science" could lead to changes in techniques and construction technology of telescopes. The research was made possible by exploiting the unusual characteristic of matter postulated to have seen very high temperatures, of about a million degrees Celsius, which can be analyzed with the use of tools to make visible the matter forward regarding the targets X-ray wavelengths; it is curious that this operation has been succeed to a student girl while astrophysicists have been trying for decades without to avail anything.
The solar eclipses were studied initially by the Assyrians-Babylonians who were able to identify the cycle of about eighteen years called "Saros" that mark the rhythm of the Sun and Moon eclipses, but it was thanks to the geometrical knowledge that Thales was able to give first explanations of this phenomenon is clearly visible the 04/01, for example from Italy (especially the North). The partial eclipse of the Sun will start at seven forty-five am and will force those who want to observe to supply with appropriate type of welder very dark or tinted glasses so as not to damage the retina, although experts have indicated that the haze and dust might mitigate the power of the sun, but it is still preferable to protect the eyes. To remember that Hipparchus was responsible for the complex theory of epicycles and deferential to calculate the geometries of the sky, theories that were then very developed and completed by the Pythagoreans.
The lights for night illumination of the cities if used without criterion increasing the brightness of the sky could provoke a pollution of chemical type, at least from the results of a study that would have shown that emissions from human activities would be partially cleared during the course of night, but this mechanism would be hindered for cause of a chemical reaction caused by light at night that would make it difficult then even from the action of the sun that not helps to further dissolve these pollutants components. From the results of this research would seem important to try to point down the lights illuminated at night, making sure that they are not reflected back to the top so it does not promote the effect of increased lighting at night (a phenomenon of light pollution for years reported just as not "healthy" also for the observation of the sky).
A study in 1996 on hair and mustache of the famous Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) of Swedish family but whose remains are kept in Prague where he died of an infection had shown the presence of trace amounts of mercury rather high, and now further analysis were performed with a tiny camera that monitored the place where he is buried in a church identifying other objects useful for investigations and also by these findings are trying to ascertain the actual causes of the death. An "official" version stated that the astronomer could have died of kidney disease, but now also advances the hypothetical version of mercury poisoning [18/11/12 maybe the dose was too much low for kill], with the suspicion that the assistant Johannes Kepler could have responsibility in the crime. To note that the heliocentric theory of the solar system was well known to the Pythagoreans and considered almost taken for granted for example by Archimedes.
The observations of the lunar surface showed some signs of erosion as fine lines that run through the surface of the earth satellite and also the size instrumental record a slight (insignificant) decrease in "size" of the Moon, which always shows the same face to an observer from the Earth since the rotation around its axis is harmonized with that of our planet, unlike at the early of the solar system. The Moon has a diameter of about 3476 kilometers and influence with the variation of its distance from Earth, the perigee (364,000 km) to the apogee (406,700 km) many terrestrial phenomena, some more visible as the tides, others much less, as the movement of body fluids and probably many subtle natural events of plants, so that farmers sow and harvest the fruit crop in periods related to the different positions of the Moon.
Among the greatest mathematicians and scientists of the antiquity must remember Archimedes of Syracuse (287-212 BC), disciple of the astronomer and mathematician Conon of Samos and continuer of the calculus of the Pythagoreans was able to apply the calculation also to the mechanics and to the hydrostatic reaching results that have influenced many technical and engineering works despite the demonstration method not quite rigorous that assumes that is already know the end of the results of his calculations to reach the complete solution. Notable is the work on floating bodies and the invention of "screw" for hydraulic works, then the calculations on the sphere and cylinder, the levers, the squaring of the parabola (the legendary burning mirrors).. He was killed roughly by a Roman soldier who questioned him and to which he refused to answer, continuing to study the his drawings and mathematical calculations.
Starting from the study of music and relationships derived from the eighth connection length of a vibrating string Pythagoras and the disciples of his school in Crotone (founded about in 531 BC) made a numerical rule of universal harmony which the planets were arranged around a central fire in a heliocentric theory in a precise mathematical relationship probably derived from the music. Many of the knowledge of the Pythagoreans were lost following the destruction of their home-school by the so-called "democratic" [ ... ] who burned alive almost all the adherents except for two (mentioned in Plato's dialogues with their disciples), but is possible guess that the rule for calculating the distance in the disposition of the ten planets around the central Sun were based on the power of number three ritual, to note that even in the current empirical law of Titius-Bode the planetary distances is calculated using a mathematical formula.
When we hear of new discoveries in astronomy and optics should be considered that the initial "correct" observations were made by applying the Pythagorean number theory to the study of the space, in fact the philosopher Philolaos of Croton (or Taranto, fifth century BC) supported the heliocentric hypothesis (theory taken up by Aristarchus of Samos and Heraclides Pontico) and probably felt that the motion of the planets was governed by a rule related to the attraction that these heavenly bodies exercised, and the apparent motion of the Sun was to be explained by the laws of the optics. In this last field the theories which were developed by Aristotle came up to influence the most important work written in this sector in Bologna in 1660: "Of the light, the colors and of the iris" by the Jesuit Francis Maria Grimaldi (1618 -1663) , which are treated diffraction, frequency, vibration of the corpuscles.. nature of colors.
Are restarted the 30/03 after repairs to the big ring (LHC) that extends for 27 kilometers between Switzerland and France near Geneva the experiments to reproduce in miniature in order to study the effects of the Big Bang, by colliding particles at nearly the speed of light thanks to an "artificial explosion" very strong of energy of 7 TeV or teraelectronvolts controlled by technicians who may also increase this power. This accelerator has been much discuss on the cost of 3.9 billion euros of the project and for the unknown dangers that this new type of technology could hide (though some controversy does not seem to have real basis), since they're all nuclear testing; but scientists are concerned to discover the inner structure of matter and the so-called invisible dark matter which is estimated to fill approximately 96 percent of the cosmos.
A time did not know the Neptune planet from the moment that was not visible to eye, and while Uranus has been uncovered only thanks to the telescope for Neptune had been intuited the existence to cause of "perturbations" own in the Uranus orbit applying the rule of the universal gravitation of Newton (or Hooke), and now assumes that also a planet to the margins of the solar system has been captured that has concurred to increase remarkably its dimensions. This theory would give an explanation also to the strange heat that is given off from this "far" planet that has a satellite (Triton) that moves with an opposite sense of spin probably because has been captured for cause of an sensible slowing down. Neptune is a sphere of gas (hydrogen, helium, methane, ammonia) to the lowest temperature from the remarkable dimensions and gravitational field, but density more low than that of the water.
Four hundred years after the first observations of the sky made in October of 1609 with a simple two-lens telescope by Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642) astronomers are promoting to the general public in honor of the great scientist three days of intense observation of the space with telescopes, whereas Galileo was the first to identify the four main satellites of Jupiter, and made accurate drawings of lunar craters discovered that the moon was not a perfect sphere. Be noted that although Galileo did not invent the telescope discovered in 1583 the isochronism of the pendulum and the possibility to improve the accuracy of time measurement in the field of watchmaking, (but was Christiaan Huygens to use his intuition in 1657 making the first watch to pendulum).. the activity of the scientist was limited by house arrest following the recantation for to not be tortured to cause of his astronomical theories.
One of the first astronomical scholars was Hipparchus of Nicaea in Bithynia, who lived in Rhodes or perhaps between 160 and 120 BC and is considered the founder of astronomy and mathematics the author of a "Catalog of the stars", full of observations on the positions of the stars recorded by other scientists, and especially known for having discovered the phenomenon of precession of the equinoxes, for having laid the foundation for the study of trigonometry, and for having built the dioptra and other astronomical instruments. Probably also the astrology with annotations and links between the positions of stars and date of birth of individuals must own to Hipparchus, but we must consider that the observations were pretty rough at the time (for example, the value of the solar parallax that the scientist calculated and used for centuries although was very wrong), and, now modern science has shown that the influence of the stars on actual events tied to the story is not certified.
The so-called "conquest" of the Moon with the aim of bringing the man to walk on the soil of the celestial body of the earth satellite began forty years ago, the July 16 1969 date on which the Apollo 11 with three astronauts on board were able the July 20 to make mooning Neil Armstrong and Edwin A. Aldrin, with complex maneuvers at the time, the small LEM module took off form the Columbia was in orbit around the Moon with Michael Collins at the controls waiting the companions. Astronauts discovered July 21 that the lunar soil is not covered by layers of dust, but by rocks and stones.. then they left a plaque: "Here men from the planet Earth were the first to set foot on the moon, July 1969 AD, we came in peace for mankind", but the atmosphere really was that dark of the cold war (and some say that in the wars the first to die is the truth), characterized by a technology challenge at all levels including the mass-media.
The Cassini probe would have detected the presence of sodium vapor erupted from long fissures in the surface of Enceladus, a small moon of Saturn of just five hundred kilometers in diameter, and this discovery could also signify the presence of water hidden in underground caves as and as has happened in the oceans on earth, the sodium present in the rocks then dissolved in the water of the oceans. Some years ago we assumed the presence of water also on Europa a satellite of Jove, but the frozen sodium vapor present in small particles launched into the space from Enceladus give hope to scientists that there might be a possibility of the presence of all the ingredients necessary to the life (water, energy and chemical bases useful for the formation of complex organic molecules).. however, further studies are needed before confirming this important discovery.
Astronauts with a job of several days seems to have managed to repair the Hubble Space Telescope (2.4 m diameter at 550 km away from the earth) also mounting sophisticated new instruments that should allow the observation of the universe for a time valued in about five - ten years. This telescope put into orbit in 1990 made it possible to take images from ultraviolet to the infrared outside the atmosphere with a resolution much higher than those made by observatories on the earth and takes its name from the scientist Edwin Powel Hubble (1889 - 1953) who studied the shape of galaxies, and calculated the distance as well, tried to calculate a constant of expansion of the universe by formulating the theory of the "big bang", sensing that the galaxies were all moved from the same point as in an explosion, then studied the hypothesis if the universe might be open or closed.
Many astronomical observatories feel light pollution affecting the vision of telescopes land that seems to also have economic difficulties in this astronomical "Galilean" 2009 and face competition from those mounted on satellites and probes that are subject to minor disturbances and allow optical to scrutinize distant space more precisely. The observation of the sky is ancient and already the Egyptians seem to have fairly precise knowledge on the collection of astronomical events and even the pyramids were oriented according to the position of certain constellations, but the astronomer who first supported the theory of apparent motion of the sun and of the heliocentric system was the Pythagorean philosopher Filolao of Crotone (V century BC), confirmed later by Aristarchus of Samos.. and Nicholas Coppernicus (1473 - 1543) thanks to the observations and the reading of the Greek texts developed his heliocentric theories.
Events in honor of Galileo Galilei (Pisa 1564 - Florence 1642) have highlighted how the scientist has helped to develop what would later become the telescope, making many careful observations and experiments on the magnification produced by lenses used in telescopes, that skilled Italian and the Netherlands craftsmen were able to obtain from long time and then aligned probably due to the studies of the Neapolitan Giambattista Della Porta (1535 -1615) literate - scientist and author of "The refractive optics" and inventor of the dark room in 1593. Previously despite the inevitable persecution was able in 1580 to build a parabolic mirror in Venice, then in 1610 was also accepted in the Academia of the Lincei. To remember then the "enlightening" work of the Jesuit Nicola Zucchi (Parma 1586 - Rome 1670) who made studies of optics that enabled the construction of the telescope.
In the new year 2009, there are several astronomical anniversaries as the "conquest" of the Moon in the July of 1969 and especially the first observations of the sky made by Galilei in 1609 (extraordinary event for which Galileo thanked the Lord God) through the magnification achieved by making changes to a telescope, a Dutch invention happened in those years. To note that the heliocentric hypothesis as well as Copernicus and Galileo was previously supported by Aristarchus of Samos (310 - 230 BC), who in "On the size and distance of the Sun and the Moon" (translated first by the Arabs and then in Latin by George Valla in 1488) ingeniously calculated but with approximation the diameter of the sun seven times higher than that of the earth, then proceeds that was illogical to think, viewed the substantial difference in volume (300 times), that a larger body could turn around one smaller.. for this theory was accused of impiety.
At the center of galaxy there would be a black hole
For several years is assumed that the to center of the Milky Way there was a "black" hole (not visible from the moment that even the light is captured by the great force of gravity) and through the observation of the movement of certain stars that revolve around the center the galaxy, the Germans astronomers found that would almost certainly result from the presence of this big black hole with a mass four million times greater than our sun. Other studies reported how our galaxy could have within it a kind of disc of "dark matter" which according to some calculations should represent about 22% of the mass in the Universe and how it would be a kind of halo of low intensity surrounding the Milky Way, then there would be 74% of a still little known and strange "dark energy", then only 4% of visible matter.. (in practice we can not see most of the Universe around us).
Continue the race to conquer space especially in the countries once considered "developing" despite the economic difficulties (without considering the environmental impact and eventual space wastes).. and also with regard to future missions to Mars with the possibility of bringing the man on the cold red planet, scientists have thought of adopting new technologies to protect astronauts from protons and other subatomic particles that can damage the DNA during the long journey of about eighteen months, since the distance from Earth to Mars varies from 55 to 400 million of kilometers. Thanks for example through the use of a protective magnetic field simulating the action of the two poles on our planet to divert the cosmic rays that can cause serious diseases like cancer, eye cataracts and various type of neurological diseases.
Those who were defined paradoxes of the infinite, at least for the human mind, were the mathematician G. Cantor object of intense study and research to limit the ability of the thought, almost a mission on behalf of humanity that can be summed up in its maximum: "I see it, but do not believe!", since there is a match biunivocal without exceptions between the points of a straight line and those of a plan, and a square or a cube would incredibly the same "power" (the concept of infinite sets - equipotent) of the own side. Cantor (1845 Petersburg - Halle 1918) was educated on religious principles from the wealthy merchant and Lutheran father and the mother who came from a family of musicians, he studied in Zurich, Berlin, Göttingen and then taught mathematics at Halle where invented the set theory is that still the basis of modern concepts of "numerousity" and infinite present, work hard opposed by colleagues so that ended up causing in the mathematician various mental disorders and depression resulting in psychiatric hospitalizations, but that gave us a new global vision and has revealed the theory of transfinite numbers (one Universe to be observed with gratitude).
Seen from the probe Cassini the Earth would seem to have of the rings, moreover have been characterized approximately others sixty moons that they belong to the Saturn planet, but the more interesting discovery recently regard to the observation of the Cosmos is relative to a wide powder disc not sighted previously round to a far binary star system that it could induce the astronomers to reformulate the computerized conception of the Universe at least regard the black holes and the formation of planets (for cause of the great gravitational forces that are originated attracting the surrounding matter). Some time ago had been also recorded close to the constellation of the Centauro to 220 light years from the Earth the organic molecule presence ("Tolin") made up of carbon that dissolving itself they would originate of the amino acids that are to the base of the life, that they are present also in the solar system (but on our planet the oxygen not to consent the formation).
For the Russian orthodox religion the 7 January is Christmas from the moment that the religious festivity corresponds to the old Julian calendar, introduced from Julius Cesar as pontifex maximus replaced the religious authorities (that calculated the dates of the religious celebrations generally based on the movement of the celestial stars) perfecting the solar system of Egyptian type of 365 days thanks to the insertion of a day every four years (..as happen in 2008 that is a leap year). Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 reformed the old calendar a few defective for which came suppressed in that year ten days from the 5 to the 15 October; moreover, were not more considers leap years the years of the centuries that were not divisible for the number 400, but this revision was not accepted from the orthodox church, for which also the festivity of the birth of Christ does not coincide in the two different rituals (to signal that also the representation of the Manger, introduced from St. Francis from Assisi to Greccio in 1223, unfortunately has not been adopted).
The galaxies and all the stars of the universe could be supported from an invisible scaffolding formed from the dark matter, at least from how much would turn out to the scientists of Baltimore that studying the disposition of clusters of galaxies have noticed as the light that arrives to us from the space could to have divert from the heaps of that it would be the carrying structure of the cosmos. Perhaps beyond to the always valid laws of universal gravitation, could be other laws that govern the motion of the cosmos, but would seem that the instrumental surveys are not constant and a lot is still from discovering on the dark matter.
Is a period in which many arguments are felt on the space, seemed at first that had been discoveries new planets, but theirs reduced dimensions have forced for analogy to declass also Pluto; that uncovered in 1930 it employs 247 years in order to carry out a complete revolution around the sunlight, from which is therefore far away that practically it's only an ice block. Other interesting discovery has been that relative the not visible dark matter but with a noticeable mass from the instruments and the modifications induced to the surrounding space. Less thrilling instead, have been the detections on the life unfortunate and disorderly of the astronauts come down on the Moon (there is also that assert that the man is not never really tread the lunar ground and that has been alone an incredible putting in scene of the USA in order to win the Cold War.. copying part of the prevoiusly tricks of the opponent).
By now it would seem that fall with a delay of approximately two days the tears transformed in falling stars of St. Lorenz, that was put on the grate because made out to carrying the riches of the church assembled of poor and the sick ones. The famous event often connected to expression of desires (poetic and romantic even if vain) depends on a composed cosmic cloud detritus, fragments of ice and from the powders leaved from the Swift-Tuttle comet that come in contact with the terrestrial atmosphere; but with the passing of the years the passage of the "Perseidi" and consequently the moment of the contact has been moved of approximately two days. Who watches the sky in tries of more and more rare falling stars often is considered one foolish in the society of the money and of the war, to wish then a little peace is truly pure utopia (from the moment that in some zones of the world fall only pestilential bombs).
Often happen that someone sights a so-called unidentified flying object, than then reveals all tricks of doubt taste; and recently it has been found from the same author of the famous film on the autopsy to presumed aliens falls with their spaceship was a macabre fiction in rubber latex and interiors of animals (but the doctors that commented the fiction not were realized ?) Unfortunately also the sights that many of we have seen in the sky of objects with strange lights that fly to the highest speeds could already be the fruit of two types of land technologies put to point from Germans and Russians to the time of the second world war, developed from the Americans and skillfully hidden. Naturally in the infinite Universe there will be sure much life shapes but as well intelligent as not to use of tricks and television deceits (and then they could have an aspect and a type of intelligence much various from our fantasy can imagine).